A wave of violent state-organised attacks break out across Germany and Austria on the night of November 9, 1938, targeting Jewish-owned businesses, apartments, and synagogues. Over thirty thousand Jewish men and boys were arrested during this pogrom and deported to concentration camps.

Black-and-white photograph of three men in hats and jackets, standing on a sidewalk and looking at two shattered storefront windows. Two men have their back to the camera.
Germans stop to look at a destroyed Jewish storefront the day after Kristallnacht, November 11, 1938. (Wikimedia Commons)

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